A system is decentralized when it doesn’t have central components through which information flows, thereby avoiding concentrations of control and power. It is nevertheless only a means, not an ends in itself.

E.F. Schumacher (1973) considered decentralization allied with freedom and one of “the truths revealed by nature’s living processes” (see biomimetics).

Extreme decentralization is sometimes referred to as fully distributed, hence DAO (decentralized organizing) and distributed ledger, although the terms are also used interchangeably.

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